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Kuri uyu wa mbere tariki 9 Gicurasi 2022, I Paris mu Bufaransa nibwo hatangira urubanza rwa Bucyibaruta Laurent wayoboraga Perefegitura ya Gikongoro mu gihe cya Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Azaburanishwa na Cour d’Assises, twise “urukiko rwa rubanda” kubera imiterere n’inshingano zikomeye rufite.

Mu gihugu cy’Ubufaransa, uru rukiko rufatwa nk’urukomeye kuko ruburanisha ibyaha bikomeye; ku bw’iyo mpamvu rukaba rugizwe n’abakomeye. Bakomeye kubera ko atari abacamanza basanzwe mu mirimo bahemberwa, ahubwo rubamo n’abaturuka muri rubanda.

Ibyaha ruburanisha

Nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 231 y’itegeko rigenga imiburanishirize y’ibyaha nshinjabyaha (code de procédure pénale) Cour d’Assises iburanisha ibyaha bikomeye, birimo ubwicanyi, ibyaha by’ubugome, ubujura bwitwaje intwaro, ibyaha byo gufata ku ngufu ndetse n’ibivugwamo amarozi.

Muri make ruburanisha ibyaha bishobora guhanishwa igifungo kirengeje imyaka icumi, cumi n’itanu akenshi, ndetse na burundu.

Niyo mpamvu rero uru rukiko ruterana harimo inyangamugayo zitoranywa muri rubanda. Kuva muri Nzeri 2019, hari aho inkiko nshinjabyaha (cour criminelle) zaburanishaga ibyaha bihanirwa igifungo kirengeje imyaka 15 ariko zigaterana nta nyangamugayo zihari.

Izi “nkiko nshinjabyaha” zaje guhinduka “inkiko za rubanda” hashingiwe ku itegeko ryo kuwa 20 Mata 1810 rigena imikorere y’inkiko.

Urukiko rwa rubanda ruba rugizwe n’abacamanza batatu babigize umwuga kandi babihoramo, n’abandi baturage 12 batoranijwe muri rubanda.

Inshingano ziranyuranye: kwemeza icyaha no guhana

Kugeza mu 1942, inshingano z’abacamanza 3 babigize umwuga zitandukanye n’iz’inyangamugayo 12 ziva muri rubanda.

Inyangamugayo 12 zibereyeho kumva urubanza, ubushinjacyaha, ubuhamya bushinja n’ubushinjura, ubwiregure bw’uregwa n’abunganizi be, ndetse n’ibirego bitangwa n’abafite inyungu ku rubanza.

Abacamanza babigize umwuga bo bagendera ku mwanzuro w’inyangamugayo, bakagena igihano bashingiye ku mategeko (bize). Ni bo bashobora kwemeza ko uregwa arekurwa (agirwa umwere), agira ibyo yishyura, cyangwa ahanishwa igifungo.

Mu rukiko rwa rubanda, abacamanza 3 nibo bayobora iburanisha, inyangamugayo 12 zirumva zikazaca urubanza

Abagize urukiko rwa rubanda

Uru rukiko ruba rugizwe na bya byiciro bibiri bidahuje inshingano: abacamanza batatu babigize umwuga ndetse n’inyangamugayo.

Gusa umubare w’inyangamugayo ugenda uhinduka hakurikijwe amategeko n’imigirire, kuko mu Bufaransa wigeze kuvanwa kuri 12 ugirwa 6; naho mu Bubiligi uguma kuri 12. Aba ariko ni abahoraho, haba hanateganijwe abasimbura babo, kandi bose niko baba bagomba kuba bari mu rukiko. Bitandukana iyo umunsi wo guca urubanza ugeze, kuko rucibwa na ba bandi bahoraho, ababuze bagasimburwa ariko ntibarenze umubare uteganywa n’itegeko.

Urukiko ruyoborwa n’Abacamanza 3 babigize umwuga, bose bashobora gutangwa n’urukiko rw’ubujurire, ariko Perezida we ni itegeko. Abandi babiri bamwungirije bo bashobora no kuva mu zindi nkiko, ariko nabo bakaba ari ba Perezida ku rwego bakoreraho.

Mu nshingano yo kuyobora imirimo y’urukiko, Perezida ni we usabwa ijambo akanaritanga, ni we umenyesha gahunda y’iburanisha akanakurikirana uko igenda neza; atanga akaruhuko abishatse cyangwa akaba yanakongera amasaha yo kumva urubanza.

Asaba ituze mu cyumba cy’iburanisha bibabye ngombwa, ikindi ni uko ashobora guhagarika iburanisha mu gihe gito cyangwa kirekire (iminota 15 cyangwa isaha) bakajya kwiherera  n’inyangamugayo.

Inyangamugayo

Uyu ni umwihariko w’inkiko za rubanda mu Bufaransa, n’izindi zikora nkazo; zifashisha inyangamugayo zavuye muri rubanda.

Ubusanzwe mu rwego rubanza habamo inyangamugayo 6, naho mu bujurire hakabamo 9. Mbere y’itegeko ryo ku itariki 10 Kanama 2011 (ryatangiye gukurikizwa muri Mutarama 2012), inyangamugayo zabaga 9 mu rwego rubanza; mu bujurire bakaba 12.

Abo ni bamwe bahoraho bateganywa n’itegeko, ariko mu rukiko haba hicayemo n’abasimbura babo. Impamvu abasimbura nabo bagomba guhora bitabira iburanisha ni uko iyo hagize ugira impamvu muri bamwe bahoraho ahita asimburwa; kandi umusimbura agomba kuba afite amakuru angana n’ay’uwo asimbuye ngo akomerezeho.

Izi nkiko aho zitandukaniye na gacaca zo mu Rwanda ni ukuba haba harimo abacamanza babigize umwuga, kandi inyangamugayo za gacaca zikaba zaraciraga imanza ab zizi; zizi n’ibyo bakoze, urubanza rukabera aho icyaha cyakorewe.

Biteganijwe ko ejo mu gitondo urukiko ruzasuzuma inzitizi zatanzwe n’abunganira Bucyibaruta, abarega  n’ubushinjacyaha bakabivugaho; noneho urukiko rukiherera rugafata umwanzuro wo kuruburanisha cyangwa kubyihorera. Nibyemezwa ko urubanza ruba, hazakurikiraho gutoranya inyangamugayo, izihoraho n’izisimbura zikamenyekana.

Karegeya Jean Baptiste Omar

 

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