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Ubushakashatsi bw’ikigo cy’ibarurishamibare (RDHS 2019-2020) bugaragaza ko ubuharike butangiye kongera kuzamuka bugera ku 8%. Nibwo bwa mbere bibaye kuva mu 1992 bwavuye kuri 14% bugera kuri 7% mu 2014-2015. Impuguke n’inzobere mu by’ubukungu zivuga ko bifite aho bihuriye n’uburyo ubukungu bw’igihugu buhagaze, bati “Umurengwe wica nk’inzara”.

Muri ubu bushakashatsi, abagore bavuga ko baharitswe basumba abagabo bemera ko bafite umugore urenze umwe; ibi bikaba byashingirwa ku kuba abagore baba badashira amakenga abagabo, cyangwa abagabo bakaba bazi guhisha ibanga.

Bunavuga kandi ko abagore bavuga ko baharitswe biganje mu burasirazuba, naho abagabo bemera ko bafite umugore urenze umwe bakaba mu mujyi wa Kigali. Ibi byasobanurwa no kuba abagabo bo mu mujyi wa Kigali bafite ubukungu bwigiye hejuru, ariko banisanzura mu gutanga amakuru; kimwe n’abagore bo muri ziriya ntara.

Muri ubwo bushakashatsi ngarukamyaka itanu (RDHS 2019-2020), abagore bavuga ko bafite ba mukeba ni 8%; mu gihe abagabo bemera ko barengeje umugore umwe ari 3%.

Ubu bushakashatsi (RDHS 2019-2020) bwashyizwe ahagaragara muri Nzeri 2021 ni ubwa gatandatu bukozwe mu Rwanda , nyuma y’ubwo mu myaka ya 1992, 2000, 2005, 2010; ndetse n’ubwa 2014-2015. Bukorwa hagamijwe kugaragaza isura nshya y’uburyo abaturage biyongera ndetse n’ibipimo by’uburyo bita ku buzima. Amakuru butangaza afasha abatanga n’abashyira mu bikorwa gahunda za Leta, ngo harebwe ingamba zafatwa hazamurwe ubuzima bw’abaturage.

Ubuharike bwariyongereye mu ntara y’Uburasirazuba n’Umujyi wa Kigali

Nubwo abagore barenga 8% bavuga ko baharitswe, abagabo bemera ko bafite umugore urenze umwe ntibagera no kuri 4%. Ubu bushakashatsi bunagaragaza ko mu bwabubanjirije ubuharike bwagabanukaga, ariko ubu bukaba bwarongeye kuzamuka: mu 1992 bwari 14%, bugera kuri 7% muri 2014-2015; none bwasubiye ku 8% mu 2019-2020.

Mu gihugu cyose abagore bo mu cyaro ni bo benshi bemeza ko baharitswe (8%), mu gihe abo mujyi bo ari 6%.

Intara y’Uburasirazuba n’iy’amajyepfo zirengeje abagore 9% bavuga ko baharitswe,  mu gihe abo mu majyarugoru ari bo bake (4%). Uburengerazuba ni 7%, umujyi wa Kigali ni 6%.

Aba bagore biganje mu bakene batanize (12%), abakire ni 5%; naho abageze kaminuza ni 2% gusa bemeza ko abagabo babo bafite nibura undi mugore umwe.

Iyo bigeze ku bagabo, abemera ko bafite umugore urenze umwe biganje mu mujyi wa Kigali, aho bagera kuri 4% (umugabo umwe muri 25). Biganje mu batarize n’abize make, kuko ngo mu ntiti nta n’umwe uharitse umugore we. Gusa iyo urebeye ku mikoro, abaherwe baza ku isonga (3.5%) bagakurikirwa n’abakene cyane (3.4). Abakire  n’abakene baringaniye bo ntibagera no kuri 2%.

Kiberinka.rw ishaka kumenya impamvu abagore bavuga ko baharitswe (8%) basumba kure abagabo bemera ko bafite umugore urenze umwe (3%).

Umukozi wa NISR, Abarikumwe Francois: Ntabwo umubare ubazwa ungana( ingo zose zatoranyijwe zirimo abagore bafite imyaka15-49 babana n’abagabo barabazwa; mu gihe ingo zubazwamo abagabo ari half(1/2).

 Ikindi ni uko twandika ibisubizo duhawe n’ababajijwe twabasabye kuvugisha ukuri twabijeje n’ibanga; ariko ntabwo tubasaba *legal documents*(inyandiko zibihamya) cyangwa ngo twinjire mu zindi verification(igenzura) zirenze. So, umugore rero ashobora kugira tendance (bakeka) yo kumva ko yaharitswe nyamara wenda umugabo amuca inyuma gusa kandi ibi ntabwo tubibara!

Mu mijyi ho; cyane muri Kigali ho birazwi ko abagabo baho aribo bakunda kugira 2eme bureau (inshoreke) nyinshi kurusha mu byaro; naho kubyerekeye intara y’amajyepfo n’iy’uburasirazuba, niko biba byabonetse muri results ; hari igihe natwe nta gisubizo tuba dufite ; tugashishikariza abashakashatsi na za kaminuza kwinjira muri Deep analysis (isesengura ryimbitse) ngo barebe impamvu….kuko NISR itanga Descriptive statistics (imibare igaragara) yabonye kuri terrain…

Ibyiciro by’ubukire: Abaherwe n’abatindi ku isonga mu buharike

Abarikumwe akomeza agaragaza uburyo bagabanya abanyarwanda mo ibyiiro bitanu (Quintiles) by’ubukire. Ati “Quintiles  zikorwa dushingiye kuri possessions(imitungo) y’ingo zose zabajijwe ibyerekeye:

-Amasambu

-Amatungo

-Ibikoresho byo munzu( igare; imodoka; radio; tv; ipasi; frigo;………..)

-Inzu urugo rutuyemo( ibiyubatse; ibiyisakaye;  umubare w’ibyumba; …..)

-Human in general( Amashuli; akazi;…..)

-Imibereho muri rusange( ubwishingizi mu kwivuza; imirire;……)

Ibi byose byose bishyirwa hamwe mu buryo bwa gihanga; bikagabanya abantu mu byiciro 5!

1.Richest( Abaherwe)

2.Richer(Abakire)

3.Middle(Abifashije)

4.Poor(Abakene)

5.Poorest(Abatindi)

Burya umurengwe wica nk’inzara koko

Kuba abaharika biganje mu *baherwe no mu batindi*, byaba biterwa n’uko

Abaherwe bafite ubushobozi bwinshi, abatindi bafite ubumenyi buke, naho Abo hagati bagashyira mu gaciro.

Mu kubisobanuro, uyu mukozi agira ati, “Natwe twarabibonye; ku bagore(Lowest) bafite tendance yo kugira abagabo benshi wenda bakuraho ubufasha; Mugihe ku bagabo bo byisobanura; iyo ufite ubukungu bwinshi ushakisha abandi bagore ngo mukomeze gusangira umunezero”.

Ibi kandi hambere umwarimu wa kaminuza Dr Mbonyinkebe yabyitaga *redistribution Des revenues* (kongera gusaranganya umusaruro).

Impuguke mu by’ubukungu Teddy Kaberuka, avuga ko abakene cyane bashaka abagore benshi bashaka abana benshi, nk’amaboko y’umuryango. Abagore nabo muri iki cyiciro baba bashaka umutekano, ubundi bati “Ndongora nitunge”.

Naho mu baherwe, Teddy Kaberuka abifata nk’umurengwe. Ati, “Uwamaze kubona byose, abana biga hanze cyangwa bararangije kaminuza, ibisigaye ni ukwishimisha. Mu gihe abo mu byiciro by’ubukungu byo hagati, ahiganje abakozi mu ngeri zinyuranye, bagira imibare myinshi, bagashyira mu gaciro. Bahorana ubwoba bwo gusubira mu bukene, abandi baharanira kujya mu baherwe. Benshi bari muri ibyo byiciro baba barwana no kubaka inzu, kurihira abana amashuri cyangwa kugura imodoka. Mu gihe abatindi batajyana abana mu mashuri, naho abaherwe bo baba barageze iyo bajya”.

Uwari umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w’icyahoze ari inama y’igihugu y’abagore (CNF), Kamanzi Jacky, we avuga ko asanga “hakenewe ubushakashatsi” hakamenyekana icyatumye ubuharike bwiyongera muri iyi myaka itanu ishize. Abajijwe impamvu yaba akeka, ati, “Ntawukeka ku bushakashatsi, ahubwo akora ubundi”.

Mu gushaka kumenya icyo Minisiteri y’umuryango ibivugaho, kuwa gatanu tariki 24 Ukuboza 2021 (mu masaasita) twabajije umukozi umwe ubihugukiwe asaba kubanza kunyura kuri PR. Asubiza agira ati, “Wapi kabisa jye natanga umusanzu wanjye byanyuze muri channel ya Ministere”.

Uwo munsi Nyuma yo kuvugana na PR ngo atange umuntu wabivugaho, wa mukozi wabisabye agira ati, “Buriya nibafata icyemezo barambwira bashobora kuba bafatiriwe. Bashobora no kuguha undi kuko Ministere iba ifite benshi. Reka tubirekere ababifatira ibyemezo”.

Asabwe uwabivugaho muri Migeprof, Muvunyi Innocent ushinzwe itumanaho agira ati,”Kuri Ministry uwavuga avuga nk’umunyepolitike, mba numva ataba inzobere”.

Nyuma ati, “Request yawe narayitanze rwose, ahubwo yahuye n’iyi minsi mikuru usanga abantu bameze nk’abari offline, reka nibutse”.

Mu zindi mpamvu zishobora kongera ubuharike, harimo amakimbirane mu miryango hagati y’umugabo n’umugore; nk’uko Dr Ndushabandi Eric abivuga mu gitabo “IntraFamily Conflits: A Constant Challenge to Peace”.

Aya makimbirane iyo ashingiye ku mitungo no kutanyurwa n’imicungire yayo(uburyo isaranganywa mu bagize urugo n’uko amafaranga akoreshwa), umwe mu bashakanye amesa kamwe akabisa undi cyangwa agashaka undi wamufasha kubona umutuzo akeneye.

Bamwe mu bagore bavuga ko bagira amahabara abafasha kwiyitaho mu masuku umugabo atabagezaho, nko gutunganya imisatsi n’inzaara, imyambaro n’ingendo zigamije kuruhuka.

Abagabo nabo bemeza hari abavuga ko iyo atabasha guhaza no kuzuza inshingano umugore akeneye bituma umugore amusuzugura; bigatuma ajya gushaka undi wamugabanyiriza imiserero (stress). Mpariye abashakashatsi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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